Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Evolving Federalism Essay -- essays research papers

Evolving Federalism Pre-Class Assignment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Federalism by definition is the division of power between a central government and its participating members. How that power is divided is the subjective aspect of federalism that was before the framers of the United States. Through compromise and necessity the seeds for a strong central government were planted alongside already strong state governments. Over time the seeds for strong central government grew; wars, economic fluctuations and national growth established a strong central government. As America’s idea of federalism changed the central government grew more powerful, the state’s government gave more power away, and local governments were established. In American Intergovernmental Relations, Laurence O’Toole cites Harry Scheiber five stages of federalism to identify three key terms of federalism in the U.S as â€Å"dual federalism,† â€Å"cooperative federalism,† and â€Å"creative federalism.† According to Schei ber the five stages of federalism, are still a valid history of federalism in the United States.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first stage, 1789-1861, he calls the â€Å"era of dual federalism† in which national, state, and local governments operated independently of one another. This â€Å"layer-cake† stage was a product of Congress, â€Å"refraining from making innovative policy in many areas formally opened to it by the Court.† It was apparent during this time that Congress was not yet ready to move to a more centralized government that would interfere with state and local governments.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Scheiber identifies the second stage, 1861-1890, as a period of transition to a more centralized government. Change to the Constitution, expansion of federal court powers, business regulation, and Supreme Court activism all worked to increase the power of national government and move towards a more centralized view of federalism. Schreiber’s third stage from 1890 to 1933 continues this move towards centralization with World War I as a catalyst.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal â€Å"inaugurated† Scheiber’s fourth stage. â€Å"Cooperative federalism† surfaces in this stage that promoted interaction and funding between the state, local, and national governments in order to facilitate new programs under the New Deal. Although this stage, labeled the marbl... ...very well improve the education system in states such as Arizona, where charter schools are becoming popular but still lack quality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Education is a strong example of competitive and cooperative federalism. Most schools receive federal grants to ensure certain programs are instituted in public schools. States provide the majority of funding to local school districts and mandate the majority of the curriculum. Local governments allocate the funds from the state to accomplish the curriculum goals as they see fit. Yet all three of these governments compete for control over how their children get educated.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Education is a prime example of shifting power in the U.S. Landmark Supreme Court cases such as Brown v. Board of Education has forced integration upon the states. Recently, the issue of the word â€Å"God† in the pledge of allegiance has surfaced in the education field and may be decided in federal courts. Bush has made it clear that he favors education reform at the federal level. Whatever the outcome, one of the three levels of government will seize more power from the education issue in this era of competitive federalism.

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