Friday, September 27, 2019

The Ideal Method of Studying Textbook Material Essay

The Ideal Method of Studying Textbook Material - Essay Example After repeated pairings, the conditioned stimulus (the tone) was enough on its own to elicit the conditioned response. However, when the tone was repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (food), the conditioned response (salivation) became progressively weaker and eventually disappeared altogether, a process called extinction. Classical conditioning can best be described as associative learning. The simplest form of classical conditioning is what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity, which states that: "When two things commonly occur together, the appearance of one will bring the other to mind." ("Classical Conditioning") Similarly, John B. Watson, an early American psychologist, presented an 11-month old child, Albert, with a loud, frightening bang and a rat at the same time. After being subjected to six or seven repetitions of this paired stimulus over the period of a week, the child became afraid of the rat although he had not been afraid of it before being subjected to the pairings. ... Thorndike formed this theory while observing the behavior of cats trying to escape from homemade puzzle boxes. When the cats were first placed in the boxes, they took a long time to escape. With experience, however, successful responses occurred more frequently. This enabled the cats to escape in less time over successive trials. In his Law of Effect, Thorndike theorized that successful responses were "stamped in" by experience and thus occurred more frequently while unsuccessful responses were "stamped out" and subsequently occurred less frequently. In simple terms, what he learned is that some consequences strengthen behavior while some weaken behavior and that learning occurs through trial and error. Learning strategies involve techniques ranging from improving memory by association to better studying by behavior modification. Examples of behavior modification that have proven helpful and aid in learning are: Eliminate the environmental cues that interfere with studying. Set aside study time and adhere to the schedule. Reward yourself for starting on time or penalize yourself for starting late. Visualize the consequences of not studying, such as failing an exam. Beware of avoidance mechanisms. Beware of preparation overkill. The main ideas are to avoid procrastination and to practice discipline. Memory Memory is one of the most important concepts in learning. If you cannot remember anything, no learning can take place. A distinction is often made between short-term and long-term memory. Short term memory is brief and transient. Sort of like when you look up a phone number in the phone book to make a call. You remember it long enough to make the call but you do not recall it later. Your short-term memory holds a small

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